Cognition is entirety of mental processes. Decision making is choosing preferred option from a range of choices, and can be based on incomplete, uncertain or conflicting information.
Expectancy-value theory is where choices between alternatives are based on percieved probability of occurrences and its value to the individual, assumption that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximise gain and minimise loss.
Expectancy x value = behaviour; expectency is from 0 (impossible) to 1 (certain), value is percieved value, behaviour change is associated with highest possible combination of expectancy and value.
Heuristics are problem solving strategies to use when decisions are complex and information is often incomplete.
- Means end analysis- takes you closer to your goal; reasoning by analogy- based on what worked in the past; subgoal analysis- breaks down a problem into smaller problems
Representativeness are decisions based on assumption that one event is representative of a whole category of events (suicide threat that is real in face of many fake suicide threats); availability is decisions based on availability of information (Chinese people may have lots of friends for whom Chinese medicine has worked).
Clinical decision making uses algorithms (differential diagnosis, biomedical theories), heuristics that have been learnt from others or derived from own experience.
Automatisation are patterns of thinking or behaviour that are so ingrained they are not considered.
Health belief model: degree of percieved health threat and belief that a health behaviour will reduce that threat -> behaviour; similar to expectancy value theory
Theory of reasoned action: norms and beliefs feed into intentions > behaviour
Theory of planned action: as above, but percieved control feeds into intentions and behaviour
Social cognitive theory posits individual as the agent of change: efficacy beliefs + outcome expectations = change.
Health behaviour change: pre-contemplation; contemplation; preparation; action; maintenance
Expectations can have an effect on healing, balance theory is that consistency is organising principle of cognitions (if cognitions are consistent we are in balance), if patients expect moderate effect of treatment and have a decent effect there will be highest rates of improvement.
Placebo effect is about 30-50% of treatment, and can cause physical side effects. Expectations modulate the placebo effect.