Glenn Melvin; Week 1 MED1022; HLSD
Nature vs nurture examines how development is shaped, evidence taken from identical twins. Continuity vs discontinuity looks at development both in a continuous sense (height) and discontinuous (milestones such as walking). Universal vs context specific development addresses if there is one path of development or several; whether our context (environment and interactions we have) shape this. Biological forces are all genetic and health related forces that affect development eg prenatal development and puberty, reflexes in newborn babies, predisposition to some diseases is genetic. Psychological factors are all internal perceptive, cognitive and emotional factors that affect development (agreeable personality traits, ability to regulate emotions). Sociocultural factors are interpersonal, societal and cultural factors that affect development. Life cycle forces examine how a same event can affect people of different ages.
Psychodynamic theory is Freud; has 5 stages of psychosexual development (oral 0-1, weaning; anal 1-3, toilet training; phallic 3-6, identifying with adult role models; latency 6-12, expanding social contacts, genital 12+, establishing family and next generation).
Eriksen's psychosocial theory: trust vs mistrust (0-1), autonomy vs shame and doubt (1-3), initiative vs guilt (3-6), industry vs inferiority (6 to adolesence), intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood), generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood), integrity vs despair (late life).
Behaviourism hypothesises that learning determines our behaviour, stimulus > response. Operant conditioning states consequences of a behaviour determine repetition.
Social learning theory says people learn by watching others, imitation is more likely when other person is smart, popular or talented. Bandura's social cognitive theory states we think about experiences and try to understand them (cognitive) and emphasises how we percieve our world and experiences (social). Sense of self-efficacy/belief in own abilities influences behaviour.
Piagets cognitive development theory: sensorimotor (0-2), preoperational thought (2-6), concrete operational thought (7 to early adolescence), formal operational thought (early adolescence and beyond). Children develop naive theories to begin to understand how things work.
Ecological and systems approach focuses on the environment and the links to development. Views all aspects of development as interconnected. Bronfenbrenner has microsystem (people and objects in immediate environment), mesosystem (links between microsystems), exosystem (social and governmental forces), macrosystem (subcultures and cultures within which the other systems lie).
Lifespan perspective focuses on selection of life goals (can be elective or loss based), compensation is alternative method for achieving a goal, optimisation is matching resources to goals and compensating where necessary.
Life course perspective looks at how events are seen in a social context, in relation to historical events, matching of individual and family transitions, impact of earlier events on later events.